This year’s Nvidia GPU Technology Conference to take place in San Jose, Silicon Valley, CA. Besides the opening keynote by CEO Jensen Huang, a former researcher from the Swiss Geocomputing Centre, Ludovic Räss, gave a talk on geo-supercomputing. Recording is accessible hereafter or on GTC on-demand:
You can now access here majority of the speakers contribution to the Swiss Geocomputing Centre kick-off workshop. Thank you again very much to all the participants for their presence, and to all the speakers and poster presenters for their contributions.
Thibault Duretz, Ludovic Räss, Yury Podladchikov and Stefan Schmalholz recently published a new study about multi-physics couplings with focus on thermomechanical interactions.
Their contribution (accessible here) assesses the ability of an iterative technique to resolve nonlinear interactions between thermal and mechanical processes. This new approach to solution is particularly well suited for parallel devices, such GPUs. The authors benchmark their proposed solver against a direct-iterative type of more classical approach (TM2Di).
Jose Fernando Mendes Professor at the University of Aveiro
Structural Properties of Multiplex Networks
Many complex systems, both natural, and man-made, can be represented as multiplex or interdependent networks. Multiple dependencies make a system more fragile: damage to one element can lead to avalanches of failures throughout the system. In this talk I will present recent developments about the structural properties of multiplex networks. The transition founded is asymmetric. It is hybrid in nature, having a discontinuity like a first-order transition, but exhibiting critical behavior, only above the transition, like a second-order transition. A complete understanding of the transition cannot therefore be had without first understanding this critical behavior. I will discuss and describe the nature of such hybrid phase transitions and the appearance of avalanches at criticality. José Fernando F. Mendes is a theoretical physicist working on Statistical Physics. His research focuses mainly in the study of complex systems and the structure and the evolution of complex networks like the World Wide Web, the Internet, biological networks, etc. Other interests are related with: granular media, self-organized criticality, non-equilibrium phase transitions, deposition models,etc. He is co-author of over 130 scientific papers receiving about 18,000 citations, with his most cited works more than 3,000 citations.
High-permeability chimney genesis out of a source region in three dimensions. Colour plot (logarithmic scale) of dynamic permeability for two different lithologies, conductive sandstone and impermeable shale. Contoured values show a 1.5 order of magnitude increase in representative for the chimneys.
These motivations resulted in the development of a high-performance computing (HPC) application to resolve in 3-dimensions a coupled hydro-mechanical model. Very high spatial and temporal resolution is required in order to capture with accuracy the significant flow localisation in space and time. Ludovic Räss, Nina S.C. Simon and Yury Y. Podladchikov relied on the computing power delivered by the GPU-based supercomputer octopus, hosted by the Swiss Geocomputing Centre at the FGSE (Unil) and performed parallel simulations on 128 GPUs, i.e. more that 380’000 cores. This novel results permit to shed light on a previously unidentified fluid focusing mechanism that has a profound impact on assessing the evolution of leakage pathways in natural gas emissions, for reliable risk assessment for long-term subsurface waste storage, or CO2 sequestration.
Chimney formation mechanism. Three successive time laps of two-dimensional vertical (a–d) and horizontal (e,f) slices. (a,e) Dynamic permeability (logarithmic scale) field. The white arrows represent the fluid flux vectors, scaled by the maximal flux over time and directed into the chimney in the local drainage area, showing flux from outside to inside the chimneys. (b,f) Strain rate-dependent non-linear bulk viscosity values (logarithmic scale). (c,g) Effective pressure distribution. (d,h) Shear stress deformation magnitude (second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor). White contour lines (b–d,f–h) represent the chimney extend, characterised by a significant increase (1.5 order of magnitude) in dynamic permeability.
Fluid flux through a horizontal slice of 1 m of low-permeable shale located at 1 m above the source region showing corresponding typical circular craters or pockmarks.
The spontaneous generation of shear zones in ductile rock is fundamental for many geodynamic processes, such as the initiation of subduction, the generation of strike slip zones or the formation of tectonic nappes. Yet, it is a challenge to find a thermo-mechanically feasible mechanism to “break” (i.e. form localised ductile shear zones) the cold and hence strong parts of the lower crust and the lithospheric mantle. The conversion of dissipative work into heat, the related local temperature increase and the associated decrease of temperature dependent rock viscosities is one possibility.
As the video shows thermal softening can can result in spontaneous strain localisation: starting from a spherical seed (week inclusion) a planar temperature anomaly is developed. As a result two practically rigid blocks are formed with a ductile shear zone in between.
We are determining the physical conditions needed for such deformation mode, as well as the resulting shear zone sizes and temperatures.
We present two-dimensional numerical simulations of inclusions that are buoyantly rising in a matrix for linear and power-law viscous flow laws. We quantify the impact of: (1) effective viscosity ratio between inclusion and matrix (∆𝜂), (2) type of flow law, and (3) numerical resolution on finite strain in and around the inclusions.
For ∆𝜂 < 10, significant internal deformation occurs within inclusions and matrix is entrained at the bottom of the deforming inclusions. For ∆𝜂 ≥ 100 inclusions rise essentially without internal deformation. Compared to linear viscous flow, power-law viscous flow does not change the overall finite strain pattern but generates higher spatial strain and strain rate gradients. For ∆𝜂 > 10 the zone of localized strain and high strain rates in the matrix adjacent to the rising inclusion has a thickness of ca. d/n, where d is the width of the inclusion and n is the power-law stress exponent. Also, for ∆𝜂 > 10 the maximal differential stress occurs inside and close to the boundary of the inclusions and is close to the buoyancy stress (ca. 30 MPa) even in inclusions which are essentially rigid. Increasing the numerical resolution does not change the general finite strain magnitude and distribution, but allows resolving thin tails at the rear of the inclusion.
Comparison of simulated strain patterns with natural examples may help to assess the mechanisms of (1) exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rock units as “transmantle” diapirs and (2) the ascent and emplacement of magma associated with plutons. Our results suggest that if UHP units, such as the Tso Morari nappe (Himalaya), would have been exhumed as “transmantle” diapirs, then they should be significantly and pervasively deformed and include entrainments of mantle rock.