Probation studies

Titre du spoiler
Institut für Rechts- und Kriminalsoziologie: Hofinger Veronika, Neumann Alexander (2008), Legalbiografien von NEUSTART Klienten
Abstract: Recidivism during and after probation service, victim-offender mediation and community work.
Czech Republic

1. Rozum Jan, Kotulan Petr, Tomášek Jan, Špejra Michal (Eds.) (2011), Proba?ní programy pro mladistvé (The Juvenile Probation Programmes.) The Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention.
Abstract: Research into the juvenile probation programmes was carried out by the Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention over the years 2009-2011. The subject of this research was the efficacy of juvenile probation programmes from a point of view of criminal re-offending of young offenders and the practical experience of those implementing them and the supervising probation officers. The main section of this study was an analysis of data from the Criminal Register, concerning a sample group of 326 juveniles who, according to Probation and Mediation Service records, took part in the probation programme in 2006.
2. Štern Pavel, Ou?ední?ková Lenka, Doubravová Dagmar (Eds.) (2010), Probace a mediace (Probation and Mediation.) Portál
Abstract: This book can be considered as the first comprehensive professional publication to topics of probation, mediation and activities of Probation and Mediation Service, including activities non-governmental organization in section of penal justice in Czech republic. This book deals with beginnings and formation of probation and mediation activities and with context development of the same activities abroad. It contains basic frames of works with clients, who are coming into the conflict or are victimized. This publication is intended to social and penal caseworkers, judges, police officers and public in general
3. Rozum Jan, Kotulan Petr, Luptáková Marina, Scheinost Miroslav, Tomášek Jan, Špejra Michal (Eds.) (2010), Uplatn?ní mediace v systému trestní justice II. (The Application of  Mediation in the Criminal Justice System II.) The Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention.
Abstract: The research of The Application of Mediation in the Criminal Justice System II took place in accordance with The Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention’s medium-term research plan for the years 2008-2010. Research focused on evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of mediation procedures for the offender, for the victim and for society, and on how mediation meets the planned general goals of the Probation and Mediation Service, i.e. integration of the offender, participation of the victim and the protection of society. One of the goals was to find out in which criminal justice institutions mediation is used by courts and public prosecutors, in what area and type of cases mediation procedures are applied, and their effectiveness from the perspective of society, the offender and the victim.
4. Zeman Petr (Eds.) (2010), Opat?ení nahrazující vazbu v trestním ?ízení. (Alternatives to Custody in Criminal Proceedings.) The Institute Criminology and Social Prevention
Abstract: The object of the research was the legal provisions on alternative measures to custody in criminal proceedings and their practical applications in the Czech criminal procedure. The aim of the research was attaining detailed knowledge about making use of alternative measures to custody in criminal proceedings and exploring their potential use in a larger extent. A secondary goal was primary assessment of the potential to apply electronic monitoring within the framework of these measures, and likewise with a view to replace the custody in the cases involving accused juveniles.
5. Rozum Jan, Kotulan Petr, Tomášek Jan (2008), Ú?innost dohledu u osob podmín?n? propušt?ných. (Effectiveness of Supervision of Persons Conditionally Released.) The Institute Criminology and Social Prevention
Abstract: This research into the effectiveness of supervision of persons conditionally released was performed in compliance with the Medium-Term Research Tasks Plan of the Institute for Criminology and Social Prevention for the period 2004 – 2007. This measure basically provides a convicted person with the opportunity to prove his/her ability to become an orderly and law-abiding member of society with the assistance of a probation officer. Various entities participate in performing tasks in particular phases of conditional release, particularly the Prison Service, the courts, the Czech Probation and Mediation Service, social curators and organisations providing social services. The aim of the research presented was to ascertain to what extent implementation of this provision is successful in practice, particularly in terms of recidivism and re-socialisation of the persons released. These findings should aid gradual improvement in the activity of the authorities involved and in their mutual cooperation.

1. Andersen, L. H. & Andersen, S. H. (2012). « Losing the stigma of incarceration: Does serving a sentence with electronic monitoring causally improve post-release labour market outcomes? ». University Press of Southern Denmark.
Abstract: Many Western countries now use electronic monitoring (EM) of some offenders
as an alternative to more traditional forms of punishments such as imprisonment.
While the main reason for introducing EM is the growing prison population,
politicians and administrators also believe that this type of punishment achieves a
positive effect by reducing recidivism and the probability of post-release
marginalization. The small existing empirical literature on the effect of EM finds
mixed support for this belief, but is, however, based on very small sample sizes.
We expand this literature by studying the causal effect of EM on social benefit
dependency after the sentence has been served. We use administrative data from
Statistics Denmark that include information on all Danish offenders who have
served their sentence under EM rather than in prison. We compare post-release
dependency rates for this group with outcomes for a historical control group of
convicted offenders who would have served their sentences with EM had the
option been available – i.e. who are identical to the EM group on all observed and
unobserved characteristics. We find that serving a sentence with EM significantly
decreases the dependency rates after release.
2. « Indberetning af vilkårsovertrædelser for samfundstjenestedømte » (2007). Justitsministeriets Forskningskontor (« Report on violation of conditions for persons with a community service sentence »).
3. Lagoni, T.M. & B. Kyvsgaard (2007). « Evaluering af fodlænkeordningen. Samarbejdet mellem myndighederne ». Justitsministeriets Forskningskontor (« An evaluation of electronic monitoring. Cooperation between the authorities »).
4. Rönneling, A., Sørensen, N. og Christel Bak, P. (2011). « Undersøgelse af tilsynsvirksomheden ». Direktoratet for Kriminalforsorgen. (« A study of the probation service ». Danish Prisons and Probation Service).

1. Best, Peter 1992

Kriminologische Fortbildung für (Jugend) Gerichtshilfe und Bewährungshilfe in der Strafrechtspflege durch staatliche Einrichtungen

Advanced criminological training for (youth) courts assistance services and probation in criminal justice by state institutes

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/ Egg, Rudolf (Hrsg.), Kriminologie als Lehrgebiet (KuP, Bd.10)

2. Kerner, Hans-Jürgen 1992

Kriminologische Fortbildung durch die Deutsche Bewährungshilfe

Criminological trainig by the probation services

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/ Egg, Rudolf (Hrsg.), Kriminologie als Lehrgebiet (KuP, Bd.10)

3. Schöch, Heinz 1992

Bewährungshilfe und Führungsaufsicht in der Strafrechtspflege

Probation and supervision of conduct in criminal justice

NStZ, Heft 8/ 1992, Seite 364

4. Baltzer, Klaus-Ulrich 1994

Organisatorischer Änderungsbedarf der Sozialen Dienste aus der Sicht der Strafjustiz

Need for organisational changes of social services as seen by criminal justice

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

5. Bertram, Claus 1994

Einheitlicher Sozialer Dienst und Projektarbeit in Bremen

Integrated social services and project-work in Bremen

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

6. Best, Peter 1994

Soziale Dienst der Justiz und freie Straffälligenhilfe im Verbund – Projektentwicklung in Niedersachsen

Social services and independent aid for convicts in combination – project-development in Niedersachsen

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

7. Block, Petra 1994

Rechtliche Strukturen der Sozialen Dienst – eine vergleichende Analyse der einschlägigen Ländervorschriften unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Organisations- und Kooperationsnormen

Legal structures of social services – a comparative analysis for the Länder with special regard to rules concerning organisation and cooperation

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

8. Dertinger, Christian 1994

Aufbau der Bewährungshilfe im Land Brandenburg

Setting up of probation services in Brandenburg

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)


9. Hering, Rainer-Dieter 1994

Kriminalpolitische Perspektiven der Sozialen Dienste aus dem Blickwinkel der Gerichtshilfe

The crime-policy perspective of social services as seen by the courts assistance services

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

10. Jehle, Jörg-Martin 1994

Soziale Dienste in der Justiz – Problemstellung und Forschungsanlage einer empirischen Untersuchung

Social services in justice – problem statement and research design for an empirical survey

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

11. Jehle, Jörg-Martin Sohn, Werner 1994

Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz

Organisation and cooperation of social services in justice

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

12. Kühnel, Peter 1994

Thesen zur Fortentwicklung der Bewährungshilfe

Theses for the development of probation services

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

13. Maelicke, Bernd 1994

Plädoyer für eine konzeptionelle und organisatorische Fortentwicklung der Sozialen Dienste der Justiz

A pleading for a conceptual and organisational development of the social services of justice

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

14. Mainz, Gerd 1994

Beziehungen zwischen Führungsaufsichtsstelle und der Staatsanwaltschaft bzw. dem Gericht

Relations between the supervision of conduct and the prosecution or rather the court

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

15. Schellhoss, Hartmut 1994

Gibt es einen Änderungsbedarf in der Organisation der Sozialen Dienste?

Is there a need for changes with regard to the organisation of the social services?

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

16. Sindlinger, Dieter 1994

Organisatorische und kooperative Aspekte im Beziehungsgefüge Justiz/Bewährungshilfe

Organisational and cooperational aspects in the structure of the relationship between justice and probation

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

17. Sohn, Werner 1994

Gerichtshilfe, Bewährungshilfe und Führungsaufsicht – Eine Analyse empirischer Untersuchungen über die Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz unter dem Gesichtspunkt von Koordination und Kooperation

Courts assistance service, probation and supervision of conduct – An analysis of empirical research conducted on the social services of justice regarding the aspects of coordination and cooperation

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

18. Thum, Monika 1994

Verbesserungsbedarf in den Bereichen Kooperation und Fachlichkeit – aus der Sicht der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Bewährungshelfer und Bewährungshelferinnen (ADB)

Needs of reform concerning cooperation and professionalism – as seen by the consortium of german probation officers (ADB)

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

19. Wagner-Müller, Anette 1994

Problemfelder der Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz – ein Diskussionsbericht

Problem areas of organisation and cooperation of the social services of justice – a discussion-report

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

20. Wegener, Hartmut 1994

Bewährungshilfe und kooperative Aspekte

Probation and aspects of cooperation

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

21. Wegener, Hedi 1994

Die Führungsaufsichtsstelle im Kooperationsgefüge der Sozialen Dienste

The office for supervision of conduct in the collaborative structure of social services

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

22. Wirth, Wolfgang 1994 Kooperation zwischen Strafvollzug und Bewährungshilfe im

Rahmen der Entlassungsvorbereitung

Cooperation between prison and probation in the context of release preparations

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/Sohn (Hrsg.), Organisation und Kooperation der Sozialen Dienste in der Justiz (KuP, Bd. 14)

23. Schöch, Heinz 1995

Der Beitrag der Führungsaufsicht zur Vermeidung des Widerrufs einer zur Bewährung ausgesetzten Unterbringung

The contribution of supervision of conduct to avoid the revoking of a suspended execution of punishment

Dessecker, Axel/Egg, Rudolf (Hrsg.), Die strafrechtliche Unterbringung in einer Entziehungsanstalt – Rechtliche, empirische und praktische Aspekte

24. Kroworz, Karola 1996

Bewahren und Verändern – ein unauflösbares Dilemma?

Bemerkungen zur Entwicklung von Gerichts- und Bewährungshilfe für Erwachsene in Berlin

Conserve and change – an indissoluble dilemma? Notes on the development of court assistance and probation services for adults in Berlin


25. Muckenhaupt, Dieter 1996

Arbeitsfeld Bewährungshilfe

Field of work probation

Egg, Rudolf/ Jehle,Jörg-Martin/Marks, Erich (Hrsg.) Aktuelle Entwicklungen in den Sozialen Diensten der Justiz (KuP, Bd.20)

26. Schöch, Heinz 1996

Die Rechtswirklichkeit und präventive Effizienz strafrechtlicher Sanktionen

Law in action and preventive efficiency of criminal sanctions

Jehle, Jörg-Martin/ Egg, Rudolf (Hrsg.), Kriminalprävention und Strafjustiz (KuP, Bd.17)

27. Egg, Rudolf 1999

Legalbewährung und kriminelle Karrieren von Sexualstraftätern – Design und ausgewählte Ergebnisse des KrimZ-Projektes

Non-reoffending and criminal carreers of sexual offenders – design and selected results of a KrimZ-project

Egg, Rudolf (Hrsg.), Sexueller Mißbrauch von Kindern, Täter und Opfer (KuP, Bd.27)

28. Knepper, Harald; Küster, Marion 2001

Problemorientierte Gruppenarbeit mit Sexualstraftätern im Rahmen der Bewährungshilfe

Problem-oriented group work with sexual offenders in the framework of probation
Bewährungshilfe, Sexualstraftäter (Teil 1), Nr.3, 3.Vierteljahr 2001

29. Kurze, Martin 2004

Nachsorge und Bewährungshilfe / Führungsaufsicht

Follow-up care and probation / supervision of conduct

Egg, Rudolf (Hrsg.), Ambulante Nachsorge nach Straf- und Maßregelvollzug – Konzepte und Erfahrungen – (KuP. Bd. 44)

30. Seifert, Dieter; Möller-Mussavi, Simone  2007

Bewährungshelferberichte über entlassene forensische Patienten (§ 63 StGB) – aussagekräftigen – Katamneseinstrument oder lästige Pflichtaufgabe?

Reports by probation officers on behalf of released forensic patients (sect. 63 StGB) – significant catamnesisinstrument or tiresome duty?

Lösel, Friedrich/ Bender, Doris/ Jehle, Jörg-Martin (Hrsg.), Kriminologie und wissensbasierte Kriminalpolitik. Entwicklungs- und Evaluationsforschung (Neue Kriminologische Schriftenreihe der Neuen Kriminologischen Gesellschaft e.V. Bd.110)

31. Beß, Konrad; Koob-Sodtke, Gertrud  2008

Die Strukturreform der Bewährungshilfe in Bayern

The reform of the structure of probation in Bavaria

Dessecker, Axel (Hrsg.), Privatisierung in der Strafrechtspflege (KuP, Bd. 56)

32. Stelly, Wolfgang; Thomas, Jürgen  2008

Veränderungsdruck durch Privatisierung: Entwicklungstendenzen in der Freien Straffälligenhilfe

Pressure to change due to privatisation: tendencies of the development of the independent aid for convicts

Dessecker, Axel (Hrsg.), Privatisierung in der Strafrechtspflege (KuP, Bd. 56)

33. Zwinger, Georg 2008

Durchführung der Bewährungs- und Gerichtshilfe in freier Trägerschaft für das Land Baden-Württemberg

Execution of probation and court aid services by an independent organisation for Baden-Württemberg Dessecker, Axel (Hrsg.), Privatisierung in der Strafrechtspflege (KuP, Bd. 56)


1. M. R. Bonura, Migrants and measures alternative to detention. The outcomes of a survey carried out within the Probation Office (UEPE) of Udine, Pordenone and Gorizia, in Rassegna Penitenziaria e Criminologica, 2011, vol. 3, pages 113-141.

This research was carried out within the Ufficio per l’Esecuzione Penale Esterna (UEPE, i.e. Probation Office) of Udine, Pordenone and Gorizia, with the aim of providing a general overview of the meaning of community sanction and measure for a sentenced foreign person.

That research included quantitative data which were obtained from the files of 85 offenders who were granted those measures between 2004 and 2009.

The analysis of the judicial data went along with an analysis of the lives of some offenders made through interviews, under a biographic approach, and which enriched the social analysis with a humane content.

The survey outcomes showed that although the migrants overcame the problems arising at legislative level connected with the possibility of applying alternative measures to foreigners, they have many difficulties, to access community sanctions and measures, above all when they are illegally in Italy.

The granting of an alternative measure is the opportunity, for an offender, to trust the institutions and to be trusted by those same institutions, which, in some cases, provide support for an inclusion in regular work activities. Moreover, those offenders who had problems of addiction to substances had the possibility of receiving a customized care.

The survey confirmed that the participation of family members or the presence of professionals are crucial points of reference in effective programmes of social inclusion, since they are of help in overcoming the difficulties in carrying out the measure.

Finally, two important data arising from this survey should deserve to be analysed more in depth, because of their importance and their impact on practitioners. The first one is that the migrant does not consider the alternative measure as a deflationary measure; the second one concerns the positive evaluation made by some foreign offenders of the period which they spent in prison, before they were granted a community sanction.

2. F. Leonardi, The measures alternative to detention between social reinsertion and the knocking down of recidivism, in Rassegna Penitenziaria e Criminologica, 2007, vol. 2, pages 7-26.

Between 1975 and 2005, in Italy the percentage of convicted persons who served their sentences out of prisons grew up, but imprisonment is commonly considered as the best solution to limit the criminality rate.

The recidivism rate has been chosen as a parameter to assess the efficiency of the measures alternative to detention. A case study was carried out, through a quantitative longitudinal research, among those who ended their assignment to the probation service in 1998, verifying whether they perpetrated new crimes until 2005. The result was that only 19% of those who were assigned to the probation service re-offended in that period, while 68% of those who were in prison re-offended.

Therefore, the assignment to the probation service can be considered as a valid solution to solve the problems of prison overcrowding, while guaranteeing, at the same time, good results in terms of offenders’ social reinsertion.

3. F. Leonardi, Drug-addiction and measures alternatives to detention: the recidivism risk among the persons assigned to the probation service, in Rassegna Penitenziaria e Criminologica, 2009, vol. 1, pages 5-30.

Assuming that drug-addiction may affect people’s criminal behaviours, the addiction to alcohol or to drugs was surveyed for a sample of persons assigned to the probation service who ended that measure alternative to detention in 1998. For all of them, the recidivism rate was calculated by ascertaining the perpetration of further crimes until 2005. The result was compared with the result of convicted people who were granted the assignment to the probation service in special cases, a measure dedicated to drug-addicts and alcohol-addicts who accept to undergo a therapeutic rehabilitation programme.

The recidivism rate found among drug-addicts is the same, whether when they are granted the normal measure of assignment to the probation service or when they undergo the measure of assignment in special cases (31%) and that rate is higher than the recidivism rate of those ones who do not show any addiction status (16%), thus confirming that addiction is one of the reasons for a higher inclination to offend.

4. A. Deriu and L. Morgante: The measures alternative to detention and the rehabilitation treatment in the new proposals of reform of the Italian Penitentiary Act, in Rassegna Penitenziaria e Criminologica, 2004, vol. 2, pages 212-237.

The article takes one proposal of reform of the Italian Penitentiary Act as a starting point for the analysis of the current situation of the system of community sanctions and measures in Italy. Those sanctions and measures were introduced in Italy by the reform [of the penitentiary law] of 1975 and initially enabled the offenders to serve one part of their sentence to imprisonment in the community. The legislative amendments brought afterwards, although they were enforced incoherently, led to establish a penitentiary area of action situated outside the prisons, and which today is almost autonomous from the prisons. Our system, however, still has some anomalous aspects in comparison with the European models of probation: our alternative measures, with a few exceptions, are granted in the execution phase, instead of being ordered in the process phase. The penitentiary reform, moreover, has never been coordinated with a more general review of the system of punishments. That coordination would have allowed to include those measures in the penal code, turning them into statutory penalties, thus reducing the recourse to imprisonment only to the cases of true need, as well as enforcing sanctions more rapidly and being certain that punishment fits the crime. This was the intention of the parliamentary commissions which worked on hypothesis of reform of the general part of the criminal code during the previous periods of office of the legislature. Those proposals had complicated parliamentary paths, and could not be approved. The current sanctioning system, therefore, is still based upon imprisonment, has a system of too flexible punishments and has a limited recourse to community sanctions and measures.

4. M. Niro, Alternative measures between prison deflation and review of the criminal sentencing system, in Rassegna Penitenziaria e Criminologica, 2008, vol. 1, pages 105-118.

This article analyses the bill named “New Penitentiary Act on the execution of sentences and other measures depriving of or limiting personal liberty”, submitted at the Chamber of Deputies on 3rd November 2005, also known as “Margara proposal”, from the name of its main inspiring person.

In particular, the article firstly focuses on the measures alternative to detention, which are strongly supported by that bill, through some amendments of the normative currently in force, aiming at making the passage to the alternative measure “the ordinary end of the penal execution”.

Then, the author analyses the connection between alternative measures and the review of the criminal sentencing system, as it developed within the framework of the proposals of reform of the criminal code, considering that the alternative measures are substantially part of the current sentencing system.

To that purpose, the common points are highlighted of the various proposals of modification, mainly consisting in the “necessity of widening and differentiating the range of alternative measures, by putting beside the imprisonment other punishments, which limit but do not deprive personal freedom.”

In conclusion, a substantial review of the criminal sentencing system should go along with a reform of the penitentiary act, and namely of the alternative measures, in the direction indicated by the Margara proposal; indeed, it is necessary to intervene both on the substantial criminal law and the sentencing and on the penal execution and on the so called “rehabilitation jurisdiction”, assigned to the supervisory magistracy.

1. Drug and Alcohol Survey (2011). The Probation Service, Ireland.
The Drugs and Alcohol Survey was a snapshot survey of all adults on probation supervision on the 1st April 2011. The survey was designed to determine the number who misused drugs and/or alcohol either currently or in the past, the nature and frequency of drug and alcohol misuse and establish if there is a correlation between the misuse and offending behaviour. The survey also determined regional variations in the misuse as well as gender and age effects. The report also included a discussion on the findings and recommended actions for the Service.
Report available on

1. G. Sakalauskas, V. Kalpokas, S. Mališauskait?, P. Ragauskas, J. Stašinskas, A. Šerkšnas, R. Tamašauskait?, V. Toleikien?, D. Usik, V. Vinogradnait?. „Probacijos modelio suk?rimas Lietuvoje » (Development of Probation Model in Lithuania) (2002).

The concept of probation based on research introduces probation model, coordination methods for institutions and proposals for implementation of different probation stages.

2. Mackevi?ius Tomas „Alternatyvos laisv?s at?mimo bausmei ir j? realizacija“ (Alternatives for the Liberty Deprivation Punishment and Their Realization). Doctoral Dissertation (2006)

The study reveals trends in probation development and identifies the presumptions of probation forms in the Lithuanian legal system. The research of the Lithuanian legal base which regulates the probation forms is presented in the study and it is compared to legal regulations of probation forms in different countries and to provisions of international documents related to alternatives to imprisonment. Conclusions and proposals on improvement of regulations of  national probation forms are presented in the study and the role of probation services in realization of probation in Lithuania is described.

3. Gavrilovien? Marta „Alternatyvi? laisv?s at?mimui bausmi? veiksmingumo teisin?s ir socialin?s prielaidos“ (The Legal and Social Presumptions of Effectiveness of Alternative Punishments to Imprisonment) Doctoral Dissertation (2009)

The problem of efficiency of alternative sanctions is discovered while studying how the conditions of imposition and execution of these sanctions could affect the criminogenic factors and therefore could reduce recidives of crime. The study contains the description of scientific practical foreign researches which allowed to comprehend the link between the structural evaluation of an offender’s personality and selection of a proper sanction. The research of related documents (judicial verdicts and decisions) was carried out in the study. The document analysis identified the link between circumstances related to crime commitment, assessment and content of decisions. Examples of case law reveal lack of structure and value in an offender’s evaluation. The study analyzes the influence of court discretion and evaluation of an offender’s personality on imposition of alternative sanctions and efficiency of their enforcement.

4. Mesonien? Simona „Lygtinis paleidimas iš pataisos ?staig?: teisiniai ir socialiniai aspektai“ (Parole Release from Correctional Institutions: Legal and Social Aspects) Doctoral Dissertation (2009)

The aim of the study is to reveal the concept of release on parole (characteristics, content, objectives) and identify whether existing legal tools allow for the possibility to continue correcting a sentenced person without his/her isolation from the society. The novelty and significance of the study is revealed through complexity of comparative legal analysis and scientific originality of ideas, such as theoretical (legal) concept of release on parole, it also provides the innovative concept of imposition and enforcement procedures based on offender‘s risk assessment, criminogenic needs and effective re-socialization. The study also analyses electronic monitoring and expediency and possibilities of its implementation in the Lithuanian legal system.


1. Scicluna, S. (2009), Malta, In van Kalmthout, A>M., Knapen, M.M., Morgensten, C., (Eds), Pre-trial detention in the European Union, Netherlands: Wolf Legal Publishers (WLP).

2. Calafato C and Knepper P, (2009), Criminology and Criminal Justice in Malta, European Journal of Criminology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 89-108

3. Knepper P and Calafato T, ‘Crime and Punishment in Malta’ in Marcelo Aebi and Miriam Pina, eds, 2010, Crime and Punishment Around the World Greenwich, CT: Praeger

4. Scicluna, S. (1997). Types of supervision and ‘what works’: Proceeding from the conference on Promoting probation internationally. Rome: UNICRI.

5. Scicluna, S.  (2000) Malta.  In A.M. van Kalmthout and J.T.M. Derks (Eds.) ‘Probation and probation services: A European perspective’. Wolf Legal Publications: The Netherlands.

6. Scicluna, S. (2001) Community service in Europe: Report of the CEP workshop.  CEP: The Netherlands.

7. Scicluna, S. (2008).  Malta. In A.M. van Kalmthout and J.T.M. Derks (Eds.). Probation in Europe. The Netherlands: Wolf Legal Publications.

8. Azzopardi, J and Scicluna, S. (2009). Criminal justice in Malta. In J. Cutajar and G. Cassar (Eds.). Social Transitions in Maltese society. Malta: Agenda.


1. Rokkan, Tore (2008), Violence and threats in Probation Service. KRUS Report 2/2008. Abstract in English. Available at internet:

Short abstract: Violence and threats against staff at the probation service has never been the main focus in the Correctional Service in Norway. Nevertheless, many employees report that they have had experiences that have been unpleasant or hard to handle. In several offices, this has lead to different kinds of actions; physical and statical measures like alarm systems and closed doors, organisational measures like meeting points and communication lines, and dynamic measures like communication and cooperation solving the tasks. The probation offices solve these tasks in different ways. One of our hypotheses in the study was to identify a “traditional” versus “modern” organisation culture. We did not succeed in that. The relatively small number of reported incidences did not give us any clear direction or strategy that seemed better in coping with violence and threats against staff.

2. Granheim, P.K, Rustad, Å.B. & Rokkan, T. (red) (2010). Evaluation report: National Substance Abuse Programme NSAP. Krus Report 4/2010. Abstract in English. Available at internet:

Short abstract: This report is based upon a request from the Panel of Accreditation to evaluate the programme “National Substance Abuse Programme” (NSAP), which originated in Canada. NSAP is a cognitive behavioural programme intended to replace the former programmes “Offender Substance Abuse Programme” (OSAPP) and the substance abuse programme in Probation named “Choices”, which both dealt with problematic behaviour related to intoxication. All three programmes are Norwegian versions of Canadian programmes used in cooperation with the Correctional Service in Canada, CSC. The pilot units assessed in this evaluation are the prisons of Ila, Ringerike, Oslo, Ravneberget, Bergen, Stavanger and Bodø, as well as the probation offices in Oslo and Østfold.

3. Rokkan, Tore. Evaluation report Electronic Monitoring, Report 1. Krus Report 2/2012. Abstract in English. Available on internet:

Short abstract: The Correctional Service of Norway Staff Academy (KRUS), on commission from The Norwegian Correctional Service Directorate (KSF), has evaluated the pilot project of electronic monitoring (EM) in Norway. Implementing sentences with electronic monitoring in Norway The aim of the pilot project was to try out a form of implementing sentences that gave flexibility and prevented waiting lists for the serving of sentences. This was supposed to lead to increased quality in the serving of sentences and to lead to lower recidivism. Increased flexibility in the serving of sentences points to both the correctional service’s need of renewal and adaptation in relation to local partners in the public services. At the same time, increased flexibility will provide increased opportunities for accommodating an individual in his or her serving of a sentence.

4. Rokkan, Tore. Evaluation report: Electronic Monitoring (EM). Report 2. Krus Report 3/2012. Abstract in English. Available on internet:

Short abstract: The aim of the objectives, principles and guidelines of how to treat and communicate with clients serving sentences in the correctional service is to prevent reoffending. In order to achieve this objective, the correctional service has a focus both on content that will ensure positive development while a sentence is being served, and on content that facilitates the offender in taking responsibility for his or her own change. The report presents a measurement of the recidivism of offenders who served their sentences with EM in 2008 and 2009. The measurement shows recidivism among them of slightly more than 10 % (N=900). A more differentiated picture appears when we divide it into crime categories: people convicted of property crimes, drug-related crimes and crimes of violence more often reoffend, whilst people convicted of economic crimes (fraud, embezzlement, etc.), driving intoxicated and other traffic offences reoffend to a lesser degree. This corresponds with findings in other studies.

5. Oster, Marianne Klystad & Rokkan, Tore. Article: Curfew as a means, not as an end – Electronic Monitoring in Norway. In Euro-Vista. Probation and Community Justice. Vol: 2, # 2, 2012.

Short abstract: Norway established electronic monitoring as a way of serving unconditional prison sentence in 2008. The aim of implementing electronic monitoring was to get a human and trustworthy alternative to imprisonment, prevent recidivism and lower the prison populations. So far, the results are positive. This article describes the “Norwegian model” for electronic monitoring, highlights some of the success factors of the project and focuses on some problems yet to be solved.

6. Iversen, Hilde Hestad, Helleso-Knutsen, Kristin, Stendahl, Ida & Helgesen, Janne. Article: Changes in Norwegian probation officers’ attitudes, behaviour, perceptions and evaluations following a national safety training intervention. In Euro-Vista. Probation and Community Justice. Vol: 2, #2, 2012.

Short abstract: A new law was introduced in Norway in 2002 that resulted in the probation service having to deal with more serious crimes and becoming more tightly connected to prisons. A safety training programme was implemented, the aim of which was to increase the level of safety in the probation service by developing a shared safety culture. Safety training programmes are often conducted with only minimal measures of their effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to determine changes in Norwegian probation officers’ safety beliefs, risk perception, attitudes, behaviour, strain, perceived safety and experiences of threats and violence during the 4-year period following the safety training intervention.

1.“Zarys metodyki pracy kuratora s?dowego” (“Outline of the  work methodology of probation officers”) – collective work under the scientific editing of Krzysztof Stasiak and Tadeusz Jedynak, “LexisNexis Polska” publishing house, Warsaw 2010.
Abstract: comprehensive study of probation officer’s work, precisely characterizing, in the light of current legislation, the tasks assigned to them, their aims and procedures; historical aspects of the formation of current model of polish judicial guardianship were also presented, together with the organizational framework of this service, its place and functions in polish judiciary; its goal  is to be a practical help for probation officers, candidates and subjects cooperating with them.
2. Probacja” (“Probation”) – free of charge quarterly scientific journal, published by the Ministry of Justice since January 2009.
Abstract: this paper is dealing with the topic of methods of application of alternatives to imprisonment, promoting good practices in application and execution of probation sanctions; it is distributed to courts, public prosecutor’s offices, educational institutions, libraries and bar associations; also available in electronic version on the Ministry of Justice  website; Its editorial board is made of the most prominent representatives of polish judiciary (i.a. Justice of the Supreme Court prof. Piotr Hofma?ski, prof. Brunon Ho?yst, President of the Constitutional Tribunal prof. Andrzej Rzepli?ski, prof. Andrzej Zoll).
3. “Kuratela s?dowa. Suksesy I pora?ki” (“Judicial guardianship. Successes and failures.”) – collective work under the scientific editing of prof. Dobrochna Wójcik, Institute of Judiciary, Scientific Publishing House “Scholar”, Warsaw 2010.
Abstract: comprehensive scientific publication outlining the most important aspects of functioning of judicial guardianship in Poland, its evolution, legal basis, tasks and duties and professional status of probation officers; it carries out qualitative analysis and evaluation of probation officers’ work based on comprehensive, multilateral and reliable research including statistical analysis, polling, deepened analysis of court records, probation officers’ documentation and focus group interview; based  on that research, main problems of polish judicial guardianship and the whole system of polish probation were diagnosed and detailed conclusions and recommendations were made.
1. Poledna, Sorina (Coord.) and Bujan, Liviu (2004). Delinquent Behaviour. Risk and Protective Factors. Editura Didactic? ?i Pedagogic?.
Abstract: The present research aimed to consider the usual specific features of adolescence and adolescents especially because the device used in order to get the information has been initially conceived in a cultural space quite different of the Romanian one. Thus, in our conception, the exploratory research on the risk factors and on the protective factors of the delinquent behaviour of the adolescents aged between 15 and 17 should take into account the specific psychological, axiological and behaving profile of adolescence and should rely methodologically on an ecological-developmental approach.
2. Balahur, Doina and Littlechild, Brian and Smith, Roger (2007). Restorative Justice Developments in Romania and Great Britain: Sociological-Juridical Enquires and Applied Studies of Social Work. Romania: Editura Universitatii Alexandru Ioan Cuza.
Abstract: This book provides contributions from the research and academic world on the movement and development of restorative justice within the reform of the juvenile justice systems of Romania and Great Britain. The authors present the impact that the new movement for restorative justice could have on the reform of juvenile justice systems. Contributing authors present two critically different experiences, from Romania and Great Britain. They argue for rejecting the punitive interventions in youth justice and bring arguments for the effectiveness of restorative justice practices for dealing with the victims of crime and for diverting children and young offenders from criminal activity. (Abstract courtesy of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service,
3. Saucan, Doina Stefan; Liiceanu, Aurora; Micle, Mihai Ioan (2009). Incalcarea legii ca stil de viata. Vulnerabilitatea adolescentilor la criminalitate / Breaking the Laws as a Life Style and the Vulnerability to Criminality in Romanian Adolescents.
Abstract: this paper proposes a personologic model of dealing with juvenile criminality for the evaluation of the risk of recidivism focused on minors and youngsters, using the investigation of the personality traits. The personality traits are differently at play when we compare minors who commit a crime with recidivists committing two or more crimes. Some suggestions concerning the juvenile justice system are discussed, focusing on the need for special training for professionals working with juvenile offenders. An optimal solution is multidisciplinary team building and monitoring the evolution of the offender’s behavior and value system.
4. Roth, Maria and Tica, Gabriel (2012). Are Former Male Inmates Excluded from Social Life? in European Journal of Probation, Vol 4, No 2.
Abstract: Based on Becker’s conceptualization of deviance, the phenomena of labelling and stigmatization of people who commit antisocial acts will result in their social marginalization and exclusion, which may result in relapse into criminal behavior. By the means of qualitative research, this paper looks at different forms of social exclusion, as possible catalysts of male recidivism in Romania. Turning away from the perspective that the offender alone is responsible for the acts he committed and for his own rehabilitation, the authors demonstrate that social exclusion was experienced by recidivists in different ways, favouring the perpetration of antisocial acts. The identified spheres of social exclusion that mainly need to be targeted by social policies and social assistance are: employment, housing, family relationships and social networks.
Spain: Catalonia

1. MARTIN BARBERAN, J., 2005 « Juvenile penal mediation in Spain: the experience of Catalonia ».pp. 347-371 in A. Mestitz and S. Ghetti, Victim-Offender Mediation with Youth Offenders in Europe, Ed. Springer, Dordrecht,

Abstract: In this chapter the author presents the legal and material possibilities for applying juvenile mediation in Spain and describes the elements that characterise the juvenile mediation model in Catalonia. The author describes the context that made juvenile mediation possible in 1989 and the way it developed until it became one of the main mechanisms of social reaction to crime and one of the characteristics of the juvenile justice system in Catalonia.

2. PÉREZ PABLO, R. M. 2000. »Probation and Probation Services, a European Perspective », Spain, chapter 18, pp 495/520, in A.M. van Kalmthout and J. Derks,Probation and Probation Services, a European Perspective, WLP, Amsterdam,
Abstract: This is a chapter from the previous edition of Probation and Probation Services in which the author describes the Spanish legal framework and the model for serving sentences in Catalonia.

3. MARTIN BARBERAN, J. 2008.Probation in Europe, Catalonia,chapter 5, pp 145/178, in A.M. van Kalmthout and I. Durnescu ,Probation in Europe, WLP, ,aolf Legal Publishers (WLP) Nijmegen

Abstract: The author describes the Catalan legal framework and the model of serving sentences in Catalonia

4. CONTRERAS, M. 2011. « L’eficàcia rehabilitadora de la pena de treballs en benefici a la comunitat. Avaluació del model d’execució a la província de Barcelona ». CEJFE, Barcelona.
Abstract: The present work aspires to serve as the first approximation to an evaluation of the current model of execution of sentences for community service in the current sentencing model, starting from the valuation of the presence of the elements that criminological research has identified as relevant (e.g. rehabilitation of convicts sentenced to community work). In order to do so, a qualitative research was realised, using interviews of a sample of convicted persons having fulfilled a sentence of community service in the province of Barcelona between October 2008 and January 2009. The goal was to know their perception on the presence of such elements.

5. VILLACAMPA,C.TORRES,N. LUQUE,M.E. 2006. « La reincidència en les penes alternatives a la presó a Catalunya (alternatives a l’empresonament) », CEJFE, Barcelona. Abstract: During a 5 year follow-up period, 329 subjects (who fulfilled a community sentence during the year 2000, as a result of a conditional sentence) have been monitored for relapse. One of the principal conclusions of the study is that the group with community sentences has, compared with a control group with a prison sentence, lower recidivism rates


1. Werren, Andreas, (2009), Analyse d’une crise: Le rapport Werren cas Daniel H. – Lucie.

2. Ruegsegger, Anne, (2005), L’évolution du pratique dans le cadre du nouveau Code pénal.

3. Mayer Klaus, Schlatter Ursula, Zobrist Patrick (Eds),(« 007) Risikoorientierte Bewährungshilfe.Bewährungshilfe-Soziales, Jg. 54 2007, Heft 1 p.33-64,

SUK: Scotland

There are a number of research studies on probation/criminal justice social work in Scotland, but these are not collated centrally in a systematic way. Interested readers will find the following websites useful in accessing this body of literature.

Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research

Criminal Justice Social Work Development Centre (an independent national resource that provides a range of services to those working in, or concerned about, criminal and youth justice social work services)

Scottish Consortium for Crime and Criminal Justice (consortium of the leading organisations and individuals concerned with crime and criminal justice in Scotland)