The goal of the conference is to explore further the way knowledge is expressed and negotiated in talk-in-interaction. The semantic domain of “epistemicity” (Boye 2012) includes two categories. On the one hand, epistemic modality encodes the degree of certainty in the information given (e.g. Egan and Weatherson 2011; Nuyts 2001). On the other hand, evidentiality expresses the source of that information, whether through direct perception, mediated hearsay or calculated inference (e.g. Aikhenvald 2004; Dendale and Tasmowski 2001; Squartini 2007). Both dimensions have been studied extensively from a syntactic and semantic point of view and largely by using mostly invented or strongly decontextualized examples.

More recently, and building on the seminal works by Heritage (1984) and Pomerantz (1984), conversation analysts and interactional linguists have started examining epistemic stance-taking in interaction from a more pragmatic perspective. Using collections of naturally occurring interactional data, they examine the role of epistemic/evidential particles in the formation, ascription and sequential organization of actions and in the construction and negotiation of situated identities and social relationships (e.g. Grzech, Bergqvist, and Schultze-Berndt 2020; Heritage 2012a, 2012b; Heritage and Raymond 2005; Jacquin and Miecznikowski 2022; Lindström, Maschler, and Pekarek Doehler 2016; Nuckolls and Michael 2014; Raymond and Heritage 2006; Stivers, Mondada, and Steensig 2011). Indexicality is fundamental here and this body of research demonstrates the degree to which the meaning of the epistemic/evidential markers depends on many pragmatic factors related to various levels of granularity (Schegloff 2000), ranging from more local, sequential organization to more macro, generic expectations (e.g. the type of setting considered). Various languages have been explored, notably English (e.g. Fox 2001; Kärkkäinen 2003; Sidnell 2014; Thompson and Mulac 1991), German (e.g. Betz 2015; Helmer, Reineke, and Deppermann 2016), French (e.g. Jacquin 2022; Mondada 2011; Pekarek Doehler 2016), Spanish/Catalan (e.g. Cornillie and Gras 2015; García Ramón 2018; Uclés Ramada 2020), Italian (e.g. Miecznikowski, Battaglia, and Geddo 2021; Pietrandrea 2018; Riccioni, Bongelli, and Zuczkowski 2014), Estonian (e.g. Keevallik 2006, 2010; Laanesoo 2016), Finnish (e.g. Lindström, Lindholm, and Laury 2016), and Hebrew (e.g. Polak-Yitzhaki and Maschler 2016).


Scholars are invited to submit papers exploring further how knowledge is expressed and negotiated in talk-in-interaction. Contributions must be related to at least one of the following three research topics:

Topic 1: Epistemicity and quantification

Over the last decade, several studies have focused on the quantitative aspect of epistemic/evidential markers in interaction (Albelda Marco and Jansegers 2019; Berglind Söderqvist 2020; Carretero, Marín-Arrese, and Lavid-López 2017; Grzech 2020; Hassler 2014; Jacquin et al. 2022; Miecznikowski 2022; Miecznikowski et al. 2021; Nissim and Pietrandrea 2017; Pekarek Doehler 2016, 2019; Willems and Blanche-Benveniste 2008), analyzing their frequency and distribution with respect to a given variable (e.g. institutional genre, morphosyntactic type, position of the marker in the turn and its sequential role), or by looking at the relationship between at least two different variables (e.g. morphosyntactic type and position of the marker in the turn construction unit). These quantitative observations provide general overviews and favor the emergence of statistically robust studies on epistemic/evidential markers in interaction.

Here are some examples of relevant questions regarding quantification:

  • Under what conditions is the quantification of epistemic positions in talk-in-interaction possible?
  • What are the most common epistemic/evidential markers, in which linguistic, discursive, or sequential contexts, and for which interactional functions?
  • What is the best way of combining quantitative explorations on massive data at a macro level with fine-grained more micro qualitative analysis?

Topic 2: Epistemicity and multimodality

Over the past 15 years, interest in the multimodal and embodied dimension of epistemicity in talk-in-interaction has grown. Various studies have shown that some (classes of) epistemic/evidential markers are associated with specific gestures or gaze behavior (e.g. Borràs-Comes et al. 2011; Debras 2021; Pekarek Doehler 2022). Others have examined the way epistemic authority is multimodally expressed and negotiated (e.g. Clifton et al. 2018; Glenn and LeBaron 2011; Heller 2018; Heritage and Raymond 2005; Iwasaki 2015; Mondada 2013), and, more generally, how multimodality contributes to the management of knowledge in talk-in-interaction (e.g. Haddington 2006; Heller 2017; Kääntä 2014).

Here are some examples of relevant questions regarding multimodality:

  • How do verbal and paraverbal resources combine to build epistemic stances in talk-in-interaction?
  • Are there specific gestures or gaze behavior associated with the expression and negotiation of knowledge in interaction? 
  • What can we learn from a cross-linguistic and cross-cultural examination of the multimodal dimension of epistemic/evidential markers?

Topic 3: Epistemicity and variation

Over the past number of years, various studies have highlighted the fact that the use and function of epistemic/evidential markers vary at different levels. Variation can be subject to sociolinguistic variables such as the age or sex/gender of the speakers (Berglind Söderqvist 2017, 2020; Brezina 2013; Coates 2012; Precht 2008), their education background (Greco 2018), or the institutional setting involved (Jacquin 2022; Jacquin et al. 2022). More generally, many studies have shown – following seminal works by Heritage & Raymond (e.g. Heritage and Raymond 2005; Raymond and Heritage 2006) – that the epistemic stances and positions adopted by the participants in a specific context are closely tied to the management of the epistemic status, authority, and territory mutually-(pre)attributed to the speakers and roles involved. Temporality seems to be another key factor in variation, both at the diachronic level of language evolution (i.e. issues related to the grammaticalization of some lexical expressions into epistemic/evidential markers; e.g. Enghels 2018; Mélac 2022; Persohn 2022) and at the longitudinal level of personal and interactional stories (e.g. Beach 2009; Deppermann and Pekarek Doehler 2021). In the same way as diachronic variation, diatopic variation in the use of epistemic/evidential markers in talk-in-interaction is still, however, relatively unexplored (e.g. Barrio 2019; Estellés and Albelda 2020).

Here are some examples of relevant questions regarding variation:

  • Are there some universals in the use and meaning of some epistemic/evidential markers within a specific language or variety?
  • What are the key factors in variation and how do they interact with each other in the use of epistemic/evidential markers (e.g. gender with education background)?
  • How should one combine different methodologies for a more holistic variational analysis of epistemicity? 


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